Between the mid-1960s and mid-1980s the percentage of Indonesian land area that was used for agriculture stayed constant at around 21 percent of Indonesia's total land area. However, in the mid-1980s this number rose to almost 25 percent until the late 1990s. Starting from 1998 another upsurge (due to the establishment of large scale plantations - in particular palm oil) made this number reach the current level of 30 percent.

Indonesia's agriculture sector is forecast to continue growing, albeit at a lower pace compared to the industry and services sectors.

    2010   2011   2012   2013   2014
 Agricultural growth
 (annual percent change)
   2.9    3.0    4.0    3.4¹    2.4¹

¹ indicates a forecast
Source: World Bank

The agricultural sector of Indonesia comprises large plantations (both state-owned and private) and smallholder production modes. The large plantations tend to focus on commodities which are important export products (palm oil and rubber), while the smallhold farmers focus on rice, soybeans, corn, fruits and vegetables.

The most important agricultural products of Indonesia are:                  

 • Palm Oil
 • Rubber
 • Cocoa
 • Coffee
 • Tea
 • Cassava
 • Rice
 • Tropical spices

Please click on one of the commodities above in order to read a profound account of each specific commodity. This account includes Indonesia's national production and export (in global perspective), future projections and profiles of Indonesian companies that are involved in the production and export of the particular commodity.

The Indonesian government has placed self sufficiency in certain agricultural products high on the agenda. In particular this applies to rice which by far is the main staple food for the majority of the population; Indonesia has the highest per capita rice consumption in the world (approximately 139 kilo per capita per year). However, the country is still dependent on imports from Vietnam and Thailand to secure the domestic rice supply. Other food crops that have become target of self sufficiency programs are soy beans, corn and sugar. Government sponsored programs are currently being executed and 2014-2015 have been mentioned as the years in which self sufficiency in these food items should be reached. However, it remains doubtful whether these programs can really make significant progress. Since 2007 the government has also started revitalization programs for smallholding farmers in order to raise production.